In fact image manipulation has existed in this form since around 1860 when photographers would physically cut-out and paste images back together creating new composites to then be re-shot.
This very odd looking family photo for instance where commercial photography studios used these techniques to add in missing family members.
Relying on the photographer to provide us with a nished shot is frankly unrealistic given the demands of today’s clients. They need attention to detail and budgets are tighter than ever, so most images are nished, perfected and even created from scratch by a designer using Photoshop. Just this week I replaced a model’s bright red inappropriate nail varnish with some nude nails I transplanted from a nice lady on Shutterstock. It was quite good fun, quick to do and rendered the image usable. That’s what is great about Photoshop for 99% of designers 99% of the time. It’s a tool for making our lives easier (which makes the designer happy), our images more beautiful (which makes the client happy) and our time more ef cient (which makes my boss happy).